Skip to main content

tv   Politics Public Policy Today  CSPAN  September 24, 2013 1:00am-6:01am EDT

1:00 am
married for quite a while. >> dennis mccarthy wants in on digg woodrow wilson become consumed with ellen's illness. to did affect his performance as president? >> not till the very end. by and large it was kept secret from him. >> i think everyone was in denial. her sheors kept telling would get better. i think the doctors were in denial. i don't think woodrow knew she was dying until the day she died . >> in the last few days when he was at her sick bed every possible minute, the world has literally fallen apart with world war i, and he had to deal with that. it's terrible. >> connie wants to know about
1:01 am
the new role. -- about the funeral. >> they had the funeral in rome at the church where woodrow met her. the townspeople were there, but there wasn't a state funeral in washington. there was a little ceremony and the white house. >> yes, there was, at the white we already finished our first hour. cooper our guest john biography of woodrow wilson. do as we closeo out here, mr. cooper, is open it up and read this paragraph or you talk about her contributions to him. low. seth felt him a cold ellen had been his closest, wisest advisor. more influence over her than anyone else.
1:02 am
he rarely let her severe depression affect him or her daughters. ellen had given him so much, and he was a far better man for her gifts. he had gone further and accomplished more in the world of scholarship, education, politics, and government than he could have without her, and he knew it. is it fair to say without ellen there might not have been a president woodrow wilson? >> absolutely. this man blossomed. he met her as he was about to depart for johns hopkins. he had been playing around with write, tryingg to to find himself. it's extraordinary.
1:03 am
it's amazing. any academic would love to have ellen pao off life. it really is extraordinary. >> we have quite a bit of detractors and some orders on our facebook age. biggest -- ellen wilson's biggest contribution was getting him to the white house? >> absolutely. as she was dying, she tells
1:04 am
the chief of staff to go to congress and says she will die more easily if they will pass a bill. the senate takes action before she loses consciousness for the last time. the bill passes later, but it is never implemented the close of world war i breaking out. they didn't have the money. in 1933 there was a young woman whose has and was involved in the ad in the stray shin. husband was involved in the administration. it was said nobody could move in a light society unless they could talk out. made this fashionable. the first week eleanor roosevelt
1:05 am
was in the white house, she went back to the federation, and she began to lobby for a bill. she lobbied for a great many things, but i firmly foreve ellen set an example elinor, and ellen are set an example for many first ladies who came after her. >> there are so many questions to ask. one interesting debate on our facebook page is woodrow wilson's attitude towards african-americans. here was ellen wilson reaching out to the plight of poverty stricken african-americans in washington, d.c. did she influence woodrow wilson, and what allah sees were used on the race issue? -- what policies were used on
1:06 am
the race issues? rex she was a southern woman, and i don't inc. you could say she believed in a quality of african impact -- i don't think you could say she believed in equality of african-americans. she was a wonderful woman, but i think she thought african- americans belonged in their place. to beautify washington, not just to be helpful. views --iuse, -- think having grown up in the means less to his views. he allowed his southern cap net secretaries to attempt to introduce segregation in the work late. made stabs at it.
1:07 am
the naacp protested it. there is also an unfortunate incident shown in earth of the which in the white house is way out of proportion in what actually happened there. time of thethe first lady? >> no, that was shortly before he met edith. the worst time in wilson's life. he was devastated. shape. >>s in bad when it is asked if he got any political passage, -- political , was he even thinking about the state? >> that's what held him together. he had to be president. he had to pay attention to these things.
1:08 am
otherwise it would have deteriorated badly if he had just been on his own. , to me it was like a white northerner. white northerners wanted race to go away. booker t. washington, we will make progress -- this was much more like that. want to makers sure blacks were in their place. wilson's sins are more of old mission. of a mission --o ommission. >> each week we have a special
1:09 am
feature attached to the first ladies we are looking at. this week it is on ellen's artwork. if you want to look at more of asel, that ise website.on our i want to talk about one other. the white house historical society has a version we have made available to you. about thesen more women. there is a short biography, and we will get it to you as quickly as we can so we can learn more about these women. as we look at it, we are going
1:10 am
to listen too late in -- to leighton. >> hello, how are you? that rome,e to say georgia, is the hometown of ellen wilson, and we are very excited you are doing a program on ellen. we celebrate not only the life in 2014. the art in 1914eresting that rome, georgia, raised $10,000 for ellen to return, but unfortunately, her untimely death prevented it from happening. 2014 will mark the anniversary
1:11 am
of the homecoming that never occurred. >> any final comments before we move on to edith? >> he was devastated. we talked about his love of having women in his life. he was a widowed resident. president. lots of women were probably in love with him how did he approach this? >> the doctor was very concerned about it. it might cheer him up, so he arranged the official hostess to go walking with edith because helen was having health
1:12 am
problems. he thought it would then a fit her to go walking with this number of they took a walks together, and that led to , meeting in the white house and they were immediately drawn to each other. quickly fell in love and quickly propose to her. >> edith is from virginia, and here is a map. it is about re-hundred miles from washington, d.c. we visited in preparation for the series. 300 miles from washington, d.c. >> it looks very much like it did when they lived here. originally in the 1840's this was two houses.
1:13 am
they were joined together. downstairs was used as retail space. was home to the bollings. let me take you inside. this was the birth room. this was the bedroom of her parents. she was the seventh of 11 children. she was one of over 20 family members who lived upstairs in the home. two of the most interesting pieces are the cradle. the cradle they would have slept in. the other is a child share. we could imagine them sitting in
1:14 am
the chair. we are pleased it has not been recovered. we know the little girl slept in the room with her grandmother. we know the grandmother was an invalid with back problems. she was the grandmother's favorite, but along with that came the responsibility of being caregiver. this is where they would enjoy evenings together. think one of my favorite at ages is young edith 14. she has her books in her lap. we are very pleased to have this picture. we see how she is dressed. we see her books.
1:15 am
a place where she was very comfortable and spent a lot of time as a young girl. edith's parents sent her to washington to keep her away from an older gentleman who was looking to court her. husband,ed her first and it really changed her life. >> there we learn more about the .arly life of edith --ie webber wants to know weber wants to know what did the father thing? wax the >> they were happy. they were among the happiest people in washington about the marriage.
1:16 am
>> what about the press? >> they try to keep it out of the press as long as they could. the reactions in the cabinet were mixed. mainly they were worried about political fallout. we are getting beyond the victorian convention that widowed people of either gender should not remarried. they should not remarried soon. there is the phrase, a decent interval of time. clearly for the president to want to marry again so quickly, a lot of them worried about it. several of them wanted to warn him off. dislike toan instant this advisor.
1:17 am
wilson patched it up and had them get together, but i don't think he understand what an enemy he had made. he had something to do with this. >> let's take a call from carl in georgia. >> thanks for taking my call. i heard a gentleman say there was a bit of dissension between the kernel and edith. this differences in living? was he commanding too much of the president's time, or were their political differences? >> he did not have living quarters in the white house. he spent a lot of time there, but he did not have living quarters there. there is a bit of both.
1:18 am
edith was given secrets of state. she admits this was a good bit of her attraction to president wilson. this made him a more glamorous figure. she is ok. just to get him out of the way .- house was concerned house saul wilson as a very valuable property to manage and keep in power. effect.orried about the .e quickly backed off he turned tail very quickly, and he tries to make up to her a
1:19 am
lot, but she masked her dislike until the time of the conference. to her sooned h after. she says no. there is a oath at this time is compressed in the white house. -- there is a quote at this time that time is compressed in the white house. one fact he pointed out to all three of the women he was neededd with was that he them so much, and it was a real .enuine need he often said he could not do his work unless he was assured of their love. that was definitely one of the things he said to edith, and she responded. she said to know you have needed me is very sweet. that was a successful courtship
1:20 am
tactic. months later he proposed again, and she accept did. refusal, that was what women were supposed to do anyway. that was the contention, that she was supposed to turn down, and the guy comes. >> she had every right to turn him down. they had known each other about >> weeks when he proposed. we both read that correspondence. it is clear she has to accept this guy. of my favorite quotes from the secret service man -- the lady is retreating but how fast and with what intention we do not know?
1:21 am
>> he would spend the evening there, and sometimes he would rake into a dance trying to go back to the white house. project a president going to date at this woman's house, it was a different era. there was such a fanaticism about baseball, they're forced -- their first public date was baseball. >> he played on a college team at the bits and. at davidson. he was a tremendous base all fan. that's their first -- baseball fan. >> we are going to have to move on, because our time is going to
1:22 am
evaporate, but what did the general population think about wilson reading marrying so quickly? >> the public loved it. they went on a tour about six weeks after they were married. she was seen as a great asset. really loved her. the crowds really loved her. they loved the idea of essentially being on their honeymoon, and it was great public relations. >> we take you to the wilson we are going to return there right now. >> we are currently in the dining room of the president woodrow wilson house, about a mile from the white house. standing guard is an official portrait finished in sober of
1:23 am
of 1920, soober nearly 93 years old. what can you tell us about this rest she is wearing -- this dress she is wearing? >> he could not have found a better helpmate than the dynamic and strong edith wilson. she's wearing a dress that is for the 1920's. it was a gift for her from france. >> some of the other artifacts like the place setting. >> this is the wilson china. edith had a hand in designing this.
1:24 am
symbols see patriotic consistent with the nation at war. the china was stacked there. reason was so he had room to ride a bicycle without crashing into the china. we need to remember edith wilson was the first first lady to go to europe as first lady, and it was important to figure out meetly how she should kings and queens and heads of state. let me show you some of the details. the lining is spectacular and gives you a sense of the level of details and the clothing she
1:25 am
purchased. >> president wilson lived there for three years after he left the white house. was there a purposeful effort to make this like the white house? >> airy much so. -- very much so. she realized the president would be more comfortable if he understood where things were. it really emulated down to the detail of getting the lincoln that he enjoyed. >> the next time you come back to us we will be in the library. reminder the and a wilson houses available for public tour. the wilson presidency were very momentous years for this country and for the world. it is hard to boil down important things that went down,
1:26 am
but we will do it. the direct election of senators was passed. a major tariffs bill, which was an important debate in this country, the , the role ofve act the federal trade commission -- ts function was also created. then of course there was the war. the u.s. declaring war on germany. after the war, woodrow wilson winning the nobel peace prize. also the 18th amendment,, and the 19th amendment calling for -- women suffer age. -- suffr was she?lvo >> i would say very little.
1:27 am
he liked to show her the papers, but mostly what she would do is get fired up and say, i think you should put this note to germany more strongly, or you should put this note to the secretary of state william jennings bryan more strongly, and he liked her to be fiery. that.ouraged it was funny because a lot of people thought she influenced tahim. she really did not prove -- approve of them and suffer rich suffrage. >> how difficult was it for him to make a decision to bring the ..s. into world war i
1:28 am
>> very. the sinking of the lusitania is a great wake-up call as to how we might be involved in the war. asreally is as comparable pearl harbor or 9/11. then it took two years to try to get the germans not to sink ships and kill people on the seas. the election of 1916 was during a lull in foreign affairs, and this notion that he kept us out great pride, he kept us out of war with mexico, had receded.hreat it was a very difficult struggle. he burden -- unburdened himself to a newspaper editor, and he predict did all of the terrible
1:29 am
-- predicted all the terrible consequences that would happen if we went into the war. sheldonould you answer cooper, who asks which wife gave more political clout to woodrow? >> i think it was ellen. she was involved. she lobbied. reducedied for having duty on books and art supplies. when it was passed, she celebrated. it meant a lot to her. i don't think either of them had a great deal to do with it, but i think they had more than he did. >> david is in virgin you. -- in virginia. to join usur viewers
1:30 am
. my question is when mrs. wilson visited europe how she was received a royalty, and can you tell us about her relationship to pocahontas and other notable families? >> she was a direct descendent of pocahontas, and it was played by newspapersl and in europe when she went over there. what was theten other part of the question. >> how she was received in europe. >> they both were received joyously when they went over there. edith road home and said she felt like cinderella. buckingham at palace. they were received by the king of italy. there were thousands of people
1:31 am
greeting them in paris. .t was a magical moment >> which has a greater influence on america today? fax i would say ellen. countryd to handle the , and i think she set a pattern of how not to do it. up. as a cover- said wes a segment that are not going to admit he had a stroke. the white house never admitted that. admitted that, and in some ways, this uncertainty about what the president condition was really contributed
1:32 am
nfalthat comes. are on.n, you >> thank you for taking my call. my question is how was edith leading up the time to her marriage by the media? did she get the princess diana reception or the rachel jackson reception? >> they try to keep it quiet. the announcement was made in the beginning of our sober. october. time, a very different and no one was expected to get out there and be fodder. the callerteresting talked about rachel jackson.
1:33 am
there was an undercurrent of a little bit of scandal. >> there were several scandals. woodrow wilson was involved with another woman during that time he was married to ellen. 1908 he scribbled on a note, my precious one, my beloved mary. i don't think he sent it to her, but he was writing his feelings. allen was very upset. she accused him of emotional love for this woman, but she tolerated mary and try to protect him from the scandal. invited roosevelt was during the election to make use of it. somebody said they had the letters. even they were never as ardent as his letters to ellen had
1:34 am
been, they were certainly compromising. they said, they were wrong. >> people said that was very roosevelt, but that somebody like him could be romeo. nobody would believe that. it doesn't work. best pr is doing his impression on the program. what happens in the white house in terms of their social, entertaining -- what does she do to support the war effort? important part of the war story? gets pitched in the middle of the term, and she really rose to the occasion.
1:35 am
popular in the press. the press had not been taken with her. edith was trying to have two receptions. a party for the , buts and central powers she really was terrific, and everyone was impressed with her leadership and sense of style. she was a wealthy washington socialite and a business executive. she was an't say socialite. er husband had been in trade. he was a businessman. there is a certain amount of as john said,ut there were scandals about the
1:36 am
ways in which she and woodrow had been intimate. later she makes a big road test, , a big- a big protest international scandal about refusing to accept the designated british ambassador because his assistant was telling not the stories about her. >> we are in the library of the wilson house with the executive director. some of the artifacts. there are a couple of things very related. why don't you tell us? the pen was used to sign the declaration of war. discussing that he
1:37 am
participated on a variety of .ssues ,he president was with edith and she offered one of hers to sign the historic document. edith was partn the businesse and of government. every day they would retire to the president's office and go through what he called his roar. -- through what he called his drawer. papers to beant delivered, and he would go through them. the president and mrs. wilson would go through these papers together. to put them int
1:38 am
order. they would decipher together decoded messages. this lays the groundwork for her role later as steward of the presidency when the president was disabled. > >> our guest have been talking about edith and ellen wilson. what do you think? >> i think the most important thing edith wilson did was to bring the role of the first lady the senseodern era in that she supported the president and was aware of some of the issues he was involved with. may take on his role in the stewardship is different because her authority in the government relied entirely on the president's affection for her, trust for her, respect for her. you would not expect she would betray that trust to go to the
1:39 am
cabinet or the president or someone else, so i think she had an important role of being helped in a very modern way. >> we are in the wilson house. this is where it edith wilson when she died61, in this house. we have one more special guest we are going to introduce you to in a little while. >> thanks for reading us into house.son we should say when woodrow wilson makes a decision he goes all in. >> it was a stalemate. russia collapsed, and the came.viks lenin's policy was peace at any price. he paid a terrible price, but this meant the germans could
1:40 am
finally fight the battle they wanted to fight. they wanted to throw everything at france. that is what they had the chance to do in the spring of 1918. it is the race against time. french heldand the on that one last time, but they were able to do it because they know the yanks are coming. we really bail them out. we weree bankrupt, and able to bail them out. >> how many casualties?
1:41 am
then woodrow wilson moves from war president to peacemaker. >> he decided very early he was going to go to paris. he was going to be our chief negotiator. into the ward come later than the others. he knew there were real differences. >> i want to take a call and have you come back to us about how that was staged and how important it was. lewis, you are on the air. welcome. is what was or -- was the league of nations was it a try up for the triumph for the
1:42 am
president, and how did mrs. ?ilson take it she lasted a little longer. >> it is a triumph and a failure. of fact there was a league nations at all is because of woodrow wilson. to whip it together in an astonishingly short time, and it was terrific. his failure was to be able to get the senate to consent, and it was a terrible stalemate, and we never joined the league of nations. happens.at in world war ii, there is a posthumous oppose the assist -- wilson.is of woodrow here is the man who predicted this. if we had listened to him, we would not have had a terrible
1:43 am
second war. there is truth to that. it is hard to imagine we would not lay at least some kind of more constructive role in world affairs if we had the league of nations. >> edith was after woodrow's death very active with the and not in aions, leadership way, but she used to go to geneva every year for their meetings, and she would go to any country that wanted to .onor woodrow and his work >> united nations week, even as we do this, and all the world leaders will be gathering in new york city. >> if it had not been for edith, and if woodrow had resigned, we might have joined the league. >> he should have left. he should not have pretended as president. this warped judgment of his that
1:44 am
-- if he compromise resigned something to get him out of the way, we would have joined the league. a would have joined on conditional basis, but frankly, that would have been more active than openly stating what many other nations were anyway. have gotten a leadership role a generation before we did. i think that's what we lost, a generation the experience of world. made was edith wilson and a critical decision to keep him and to servehouse as a gatekeeper for him and to keep the affairs of state knowing during the years -- going during the years when he was critically ill.
1:45 am
>> in october he wrote a memo that should he be subpoenaed he wanted to have something on sayingery early on exactly what was wrong with the president. >> i have read several citations . >> of course she did. they were quite fanciful. distinguished neurologist wrote a medical biography of wilson. he takes it straight on. responsible position would have said that. >> i asked about their trip to europe as a great peacemaker. traveled by ocean liner to
1:46 am
get there by a specific day. arrivingwilson's there, how were they received by other heads of state? >> they were received on terms that would have been accorded to royalty. went, theythey were cheered by populists. at the beginning it was wonderful, but edith suddenly went from a fairytale existence to being extremely concerned for wilson's high blood pressure. he had had some kind of episode when he was only 39 years old when he had a lot of numbness in bloodnd. he had very high pressure all of his adult life, or at least from the age 39 onwards, and kerry grayson had been insistent he get a lot of exercise and a lot of rest. negotiations he couldn't either rest or
1:47 am
exercise, and edith was trying her best to get him to go for a walk. the woman who was with her, her said she would never go out if there was a possibility she would be able to take woodrow for a walk, but it was not enough. >> when he came back he embarked on a tour of the united states to try to sell the idea of the league of nations to the united states, ultimately leading to his exhaustion and a stroke we spoke about earlier. we have only 15 minutes left, so we are going to have to compress a lot into that time. we will introduce you to a member of the family. >> this is kerry fuller. what is your relationship to edith wilson? >> edith is my great aunt. >> how much time did you spend in the house growing up? >> a lot of time. my grand day -- my great aunt
1:48 am
and great uncle, all of whom edith took care of. are in the library. what was it like to visit? >> it was called playing cards. we had a good meal. we played cards, prompted by my mother to let her win everyone's a while. she was a fierce person in terms of winning. >> canasta? .> it was easy to let her win >> there is a deck of cards here. is this the card box you would use? >> the cards were always on the table. >> did she ever talk about being first lady? no, it was very interesting. she rarely referred to the past, and if she did she would refer to woodrow wilson as president.
1:49 am
was interesting. >> were there any special visitors? >> she loved her family so much and spent a lot of time with them. >> she would also take in family. yes, my grandfather and her sister all died in this house. >> did she ever talk about ellen ? >> never, but that wouldn't have come up. seeing the picture is sort of funny. it wasn't a part of what we would have discussed. about jackie kennedy? >> i was close to jackie kennedy . i was waiting to pick them up afterwards. >> that was when she was first lady. >> she was first lady. edith was what she wanted wanted us to call her. she was so excited about the
1:50 am
president the, and that she got to see it was wonderful. >> we are on the main level of the house up one staircase from the entrance. where would you sleep when you were visiting? >> upstairs. between a little room her room and the presidents. there were two occasions. >> there are three of you left. active in the edith wilson family >> not so much with the family but with the wilson house and the birthplace. i am involved with both of those, which is wonderful. >> we want to thank all and his come inr allowing us to with the cameras and showing you a few of the artifact.
1:51 am
>> she made it to john kennedy's inauguration. through 1961. thewas supposed to dedicate woodrow wilson bridge that all of us in washington know so well, and she was going to dedicate it on his 105th earth a. birthday. she was 89 and contracted pneumonia. she was 89 on his birth a. birthday.drow -- >> the woodrow wilson center, when did that get started? >> i think it was authorized under kennedy. started -- the first was the late 1960's.
1:52 am
it's now a part of the lincoln building. i think that's a very fitting memorial to wilson, because it really does bring together andlars and policymakers, wilson was no ivory tower intellectual. he really believed that scholarship, that learning should be brought to bear on public affairs. the lessons he had learned, the study of politics, and put them into practice. this is a man who got the chance to practice what he had been preaching all along. number ofd this a times. i don't know of any other career in american history or any other history i can inc. of that that there justifies the study of politics as preparation for
1:53 am
politics than woodrow wilson. >> you are on the air. >> i would like to make a comment. this woman edith is an appellation woman -- appalatian and only tofirst become first lady. i wonder if the experts would be interested in commenting on her appalachian role as caregiver and the fact she was a caregiver histhe president and into legacy and might be responsible anda lot of emulation legacy president wilson has. >> i don't know that being an appalachian woman made her stand
1:54 am
out at the time in america. think women are the principal caregivers of family members, and ellen also came from rome, georgia, which might technically appalachia also. she was interested in crafts. she remodeled the president's room with quilts and hangings and fabrics. she set up a scholarship fund. in memory of her brother with the earnings she got from her paintings. was the oneel she who focused more on the appalachian nature or your more than -- or character more than dith did. >> she met woodrow wilson ellen died.r
1:55 am
she became first lady very quickly without much preparation. did hen after that become ill, and how much did she of him?e >> she was nursing to the president another four and half years. >> and he was incapacitated for how long? >> just under three years. >> he dies when? >> february 4, 1924. >> how was he memorialized? was there a big public funeral ? >> yes, it was lovely. at the houservice presided over presbyterian and the washington
1:56 am
bishop. edith is a cotillion, and she did not change to presbyterian -- anan ep skip alien episcopalian. by the time moved they finished the principal part of the good he drove. of the cathedral. it's a lovely ceremony. the funeral was at the end of the service. to arlington,kup so they knew the exact moment.
1:57 am
after heved how long died? >> something like 37 years. it was an extraordinarily long time. like? rexs her life she spent the rest of her life in woodrow wilson's widow. his first i ever for. she controls access to his papers -- she chose his first biographer. she wrote her own memoir with her owns in on it. collaborated with xanax, -- made a movie. to me the most important thing is she supported something he had supported, a woodrow wilson foundation, and they helped andte the united nations,
1:58 am
ey als clect these papers, so there are 69 volumes of letters and other significant papers, many from first ladies, and i think that is her biggest legacy. some -- >> we have some videos from the university. can you tell the story? >> it is the bicentennial, 200 years, and they gathered the living first lady's. cleveland, who was much younger -- had went to princeton. eleanor roosevelt was there. there is a picture of truman with these first ladies. >> i know alan wilson had to
1:59 am
entertain theodore roosevelt when woodrow was president of contact and she did frances cleveland for advice on how to entertain ex-president. >> did she go back to the white house again? >> i don't know. one thing i thought was very interesting was when fdr went to congress the day after the bombing at pearl harbor, he invited edith wilson to sit in the gallery. >> from omaha nebraska. your question? >> i have a question. covering up about could she be
2:00 am
investigated for that? did she commit a crime by doing this? >> i don't know if it was a crime. i think it was a big mistake. christy >> she was buried with him in the cathedral. >> and we often talk about the first. they were the first and only presidential couple to be buried in the national cathedral in washington, d.c. those of you who are fortunate to go to europe and various figures buried here, they tried to emulate that and they got to one president and first lady. i want to show cristy miller on
2:01 am
screen so they can see your biography. woodrow wilson's first ladies. you have conclusions and i want to close with you alking a little bit about this. edith wilson undeniably had an impact on history. she took over after woodrow wilson's stroke. she probably would have join the league of nations. you write regardless whether she had an effect on international relations her actions almost certainly changed american constitutional law. her assumption of power during woodrow wilson was well known to the drafters of the president's amendment. this is the part i wanted to go to. edith wilson did not use the power of presidential spouse as constructively as she might have.
2:02 am
provided a good role model for american women in wartime. o this is what we should think about edith's role in the white house? >> unfortunately, her biggest contribution is whatnot to do en as late as 1987, will sapphire was writing to nancy reagan writing a column saying -- don't be an edith wilson. i'm afraid that's her legacy as first lady. >> thanks to both of you and telling us about the first two ladies in woodrow wilson's life and in this country's history. thanks. [captioning performed by national captioning institute]
2:03 am
[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
2:04 am
>> after her husband was elected he told her, well, florence harding i got you the presidency, now what are you going to do? 1920 was the first presidential election in which women could vote worldwide. next monday on first ladies influence & image the life of florence harding. and with the white house historical association we're offering a special association first ladies of the united tates of america that provides a story on each first lady. ow available for $12.95 at c-span.org/products.
2:05 am
next year on c-span a look at the budget battle in congress with mya mcginnness. that's followed by a senate hearing on combating human trafficking. and later a look at how demographics are changing elections. next a discussion on the budget battle in congress. the potential government shutdown, the debt ceiling and e quest tration. mya mcginnness was a guest on "washington journal." this is 25 minutes. host: with congress set for a budget showdown this weekend, a looming battle over raising the federal debt limit, we are joined by the president of the
2:06 am
committee for a responsible federal budget. as you look at this immediate budget situation and the potential shut down that could be taking place, how do you see this playing out over the next eight days? guest: it is a precursor to a crazy fall. we have been through this before and why are we doing this? why are we budgeting in a way where we jump from one crisis to the next, never fixing our budget, but always jeopardizing the economy by going to the last minute, the 11th hour, on all sorts of different deadlines and still not getting the work done. i think what we will see this week is the house has passed its first ever continuing resolution which means if the way we will fund the government temporarily. there is no budget in place but that will go through the middle of december while the house and senate have to work out various differences to put a longer-term budget in place and that will get kicked over to the senate. the senate will likely not pass what the house passes because the house has attached the requirement that you defund
2:07 am
obamacare which has become a priority of theirs. the senate will send something back probably midweek and we will see how this lays out. we don't know where the votes are to pass something to temporarily fund the government. that means there are a different scenarios. the government could shut down at the end of september. that's when the fiscal year ends or the government. somehow, the house and senate republicans and democrats could cobble together a top line number for how much they could fund the government for the next probably three months but that is up in the air. then, the real discussions begin about how you will let the debt ceiling and what kind of budget will be put in place permanently. it will be a mess. this is not how you should budget for the largest economy n the world. this is not how you should run a country. t is really disgraceful. every citizen should be
2:08 am
frustrated we are doing this again and set of putting in place a long-term plan to get this country act on track in terms of its budget and economy. host: this is not a federal or overnment group. guest: we are a nonpartisan group. we don't have a political agenda. it has been around for decades. the board of directors are people who have served in government as the heads of the treasury department and the budget committees and the federal reserve board, the congressional budget office so they have been in government and experienced how hard it is to do the right thing when you try to put a budget in place. they care a lot about fiscal responsibility and have joined together to work with members of congress to try to be more fiscally responsible. it is a public organization and has a number of different rojects. we work closely with members of both sides of the aisle. host: there is a possibility for a government shutdown with congress moving toward the possibility.
2:09 am
several members made it on the sunday shows yesterday including house minority leader nancy pelosi and here is what she had o say. >> let's be really clear about this -- republicans put legislation on the floor that was intended to shut down government. for them, that's a victory because they are anti-government. >> they want to defund obamacare? >> no, they want to shut down he government. the point of putting the d funding of obamacare on the bill is to shut down the government. hey know it will not pass. >> they might say this is a disaster because this is hurting usinesses. it is causing businesses to go from full time jobs to part-time jobs so they get out from under healthcare.
2:10 am
>> it is an excuse, not a eason. for the 42nd time this week, they voted to defund the affordable care act. host: we are with maya mcguibnease guest: i think it is true that attaching and d funding the affordable care act to the resolution is not going to ork. there are not enough votes to pass it so it is not trying to come to a resolution or compromise about how we will fund the government. it is clear that both sides have different visions about the government they want. we are supposed to have a normal budget process where you work through those differences. the house passes a budget and the senate passes a budget and they come together and hammer out the differences and you have a budget put in place in advance
2:11 am
of when the fiscal year ends. that is what they are supposed to do and that is not what has happened. the senate passed a budget, the house passed a budget, and then they did not go to conference. it was primarily house republicans that did not want to put a conference together to work out the differences so that process has stalled. what i think is troubling is that we are at the last minute where we should be hammering out the differences and everybody is entitled to their different ision. at this moment, we are now up against a deadline of how to pay for the government. we should be well past these discussions. i think attaching things that are not going to pass which is more of a symbolic or political vote, the moment to do that was earlier in the process, where are our political leaders? we are hurtling toward a crisis that we know about where
2:12 am
government shuts down. it could make it much worse, potentially a default is staring us in the face. where are the political leaders? they are taking potshots at each other instead of calling for discussions to figure out how to fund the government and pay our ills by raising the debt ceiling and how we will make the changes that will put this government back on track. our fiscal problems right now are looming out there with no plan and praise -- no plan in place to improve them. host: one conservative republican from arizona was on one of the sunday shows yesterday and here is his ake. >> we don't want to shut down the government. we want to shut down obamacare. the american people have made their voices clear. most of the polls i have seen over the last few weeks have said clearly there is a majority of americans that don't want obamacare. the president has postponed 41 out of 82 of the provisions. he has given exemptions to big business, congress. why doesn't he give the same exemptions to the hard-working
2:13 am
eople? >> they will strip out this thing to not defund obamacare in this bill and weight till the last minute, they will send it back over to the house and then you're going to have to vote on whether we just shut down the overnment. >> i would hope that senator reid would take the voice of the american people seriously and they was seriously -- if they cannot come up with the defunding of obamacare, come up with another proposal. all we are asking is a vote on the floor. this is what the american people want and they have made their voice loud and clear and we are trying to enact the will of the people. host: is congress taking the voice of the american people seriously? guest: the affordable care act is not particularly popular and there are concerns about how we an implement it.
2:14 am
the house republicans have seen is that a lot of people are very concerned about this bill. the truth is, it is really complicated, even the people of put it together. they knowledge is complicated and makes big changes and it takes public education about hat will work. we don't know right now whether the affordable care act is going to be successful as it was supposed to the. -- supposed to be. we have seen some good steps forward but we have not -- it has not been in place enough to know what it will be. and people start to talk about phasing it in, it is not very popular with the american public. on the one hand, people would say holding the government hostage by attaching this is ounterproductive, the people who are attaching this to the continuing resolution are hearing in their districts that they don't want to have this
2:15 am
bill go forward. we are in an important national discussion taking place at the wrong time. we should not be figuring this out when we have to figure out how to fund the government. we should be getting government funding in place even temporarily and then have a bigger discussion about what part of our government should stay on track and what areas need to be reformed. in many ways, the presidential election was a referendum on this health care bill. it was a big topic of discussion so the president win solidified that this is likely to stay. that would give us more time on which parts are working and which parts are not. host: if you want to contact maya mcguineas -
2:16 am
howard is up first for mountain center, california, on a republican line. are you there? we will go to michael from main this morning. you are on. caller: yes, good morning, how are you today? i think it is very responsible of our government to do all this baby talk type stuff. these are elected congressmen that should be acting like adults instead of -- i did not get my toy today so i am not going to play with everybody lse.
2:17 am
they are being paid to do a job and they need to be doing it. host: that leads us into a tweet - there is a push out there for not paying members of ongress. uest: we don't have a position on that. though him budget no pay act was a helpful idea which turned into legislation which pushed the senate to put in place a budget for the senate had not had a budget for a number of years. when i talked about how the process should work, the how should pass a budget, the senate hould pass a buzz at, -- a budget, they should reconcile. this time they did so we got further. they still did not reconcile the differences. the no budget no pay act
2:18 am
requires that each body pass a budget but it did not require that there be a budget in place. should we be taking that are there and say of congress cannot pass an actual budget, they don't get paid? i'm not the biggest fan of those kind of tactics to get people to do with they need to do. and this country, i agree with the caller -- i feel like we are watching a bunch of children who cannot ever. there is n -- who cannot govern. not one of us has a job when we have a difference of opinion with one of our colleagues or coworkers we threaten to shut down the business. likewise, we don't say we are not going to talk about it. i go back to the point of -- where are our political leaders? how can we have congress run around like a bunch of children not getting anything done and the leaders of the senate and the house and the president are not saying enough is enough. let sit down and figure out these differences. it has become so divided and so polarized. i share the caller's frustration with congress as does the american public.
2:19 am
if you look at their popularity level, very low. i don't know who thinks they are doing a good job. host: does your committee put orth they budget proposal each year? guest: we don't. i am not going to say whether you should do this on taxes or this on social security or medicare erie it we put forth a lot of options. we spend a lot of time talking about tax reform. in the senate and the house, they are working hard on trying to come up with a plan to reform ur tax code. our tax code is a disaster. it is incredibly complicated and there is tax rates of over $1 trillion per year in lost revenue that often times don't work, more money from the tax breaks goes to the well off are at is a backwards tax ystem. they talk about how to reform the tax code. we will say here is a bunch of tax breaks you could get rid f.
2:20 am
a lot of them are things that are quite popular but if you were to get rid of these tax breaks, you could ring tax rates down and use some of the money to close the deficit. we will go into detail about things like that and talk about ixing social security. even on our website, we have a simulator where you can look at how you can fix social security. it is headed on a course where it will run out of money before the next generation can collect. it is important we start to think as a country about how to ake those changes. . we put forth options there is no one right or wrong answers but we have to start dealing with these issues. we have to fix social security, reform the tax code, keep our health care costs under control. all of those changes would help their interest costs under control and we will have interest is one of the fastest-growing parts of the budget3. it is a terrible way to manage ur budget.
2:21 am
no one does that at home and we should not be doing that as a country. what we are seeing in congress is juvenile. i think from our political leaders, we should expect more and i share the caller's frustration because these are real issues that affect american amilies. it affects our job security and wages and what we can expect for our children and enough is enough. we should have them work it out together and compromise. host: you bring up the tax breaks that the committee for responsible federal budget has been highlighting and you can see those on your website. it is called the tax break own. that's the series highlighting those tax breaks. jimmy is up next from canon, georgia, independent line. caller: good morning. would like to say that they
2:22 am
are keeping house speaker john rainer hostage by threatening him not to keep his job. it is sickening what they do in the country now. they need to get up there and do something right for the people. i think the republican party has more sense of what they are acting like now. i think it is more like communism when they try to get out and do things. i want the republicans and the democrats to listen. if you let them get by with this, it will be medicare, medicaid, social security, anything and corporate welfare. the farm bill is welfare and i believe in helping people but you cannot have them do what hey are doing now.
2:23 am
guest: >> a lot of important comments and there. the republican party really is having its own internal divide that is spilling over and affecting the whole process. i don't think that is so urprising. i think it is kind of hard to think that republicans or democrats will walk in ockstep. at this point, the republican party is going through an extreme in the house. he most them toward an and dangerous part of it is that the tactics that are being used, holding up funding the government or worse, i cannot stress this enough -- a government shutdown is dangerous and expensive and will hurt people. talking about a default on the ountry is unprecedented.
2:24 am
we have never even thought through what this can mean in this country. host: give us a time frame as to when that could happen. guest: we are going to hit the debt ceiling in the middle of october. we will run out of money to pay our bills because we will not have the official permission to borrow any more money. sometime between mid-october and he end of october. at that point, if we were to stop paying our bills, that would be a government default. it is unprecedented to imagine that something like that would happen in the united states. we have seen that in other countries around the world like eveloping nations that are not on their own currency but that is different. this would be self-imposed, self-imposed default, which would send ripples through the lobal economic system.
2:25 am
the fact that we are doing that because small groups are saying we might not be willing to pass the debt ceiling increase is dangerous. i will say that when we come up against the debt ceiling in the middle of october, it is a speed hump that reminds us that we are orrowing too much. that is absolutely true. we are are winning more than $2 billion per day at our at that levels that are the highest they have been since post-world war i while the deficit has come down some recently. that's only because it was so high before. we are on track where are debt level is unsustainable. when we come up with the debt ceiling, shouldn't we think about ways to change our budget situation and make changes to how much we borrow? absolutely, those changes need o be made. we should not say we will default if we do not make those hanges in the way that i want. the republican party has internal tension to work out. it's not as though democrats are
2:26 am
at the table acting responsibly. they are continuing to pull back from talking about how much we need to deal with some of the tougher issues in this country like controlling healthcare costs, securing retirement for an aging population, and dealing with the biggest programs driving the debt in this country. both parties are having a tough time talking about these things because nobody wants to talk of -- nobody wants to talk about the real choices. we have to raise taxes, cut spending, reform our entitlement spending. those are the truths that the politicians don't like to talk about. you have to look at all of those solutions and we need everybody to think about doing that. host: and terms of what is driving this debate, here is an -mail -- guest: the biggest problem is the long-term problem.
2:27 am
if you look at the charts about where the debt is headed over the long term, it is a march upwards to dangerous levels. host: this is the congressional budget office's report from last week talking about the federal debt held by the public as a percentage of gdp. today, about mid 70 plus range but expected to surpass 100% of gdp by the late 2030's. uest: it is a steady and
2:28 am
dramatic march upward. it is already having some negative effects on the economy ecause we know changes have to be made but we don't know what they will be so people cannot plan for their own retirement or the cost of education or how much they should be saving for their future. the lack of stability is already harming the economic recovery. i think it will be very difficult to have a sustained economic recovery until we get this debt situation under control. it does not mean you have to start reducing the deficit aggressively today. it means you have to put in place a medium-term plan where it will be on track so the deficit will start to get under control and the debt will not go up as quickly. the calls are that's the caller also talked about the sequester.
2:29 am
we have been trying to get control of our fiscal situation in this country. people understand how bad it is but in the wrong ways. we have been focusing on discretionary spending. that is not the real product problem. the growth comes from health care costs aging population and borrowing. those are the big drivers of the debt. we are focusing on parts of the budget like defense, there is plenty of room for savings in defense but domestic discretionary is part of the budget where there is room for some savings. we start squeezing out critical investments because we are unwilling to look at the real parts of the budget where the problems are. as part of the budget discussion, we need to fund the government, we need to figure out how to replace part of the sequester cuts with smarter savings. right now, we have savings that are going after the wrong part of the budget. switch them out for savings that go after the heart of the budget that makes the deficit go up and we need to put together a larger
2:30 am
overall package that is not growing and is on a more sustainable path where the economy is growing faster than he debt. can we get it so the debt is not growing faster than the >> tuesday president obama addresses the you in general assembly. n general assembly. then the health care insurance exchange enrollment. later the senate budget committee holds a hearing with members also looking at the role .n government shut down 2:30 eastern. at >> online archives will redefine
2:31 am
social study education in america. the c-span video library is a great resource to view and share content any time. it's easy. go to the most recent tab, click on what you want, and press play. search keywords. you can also share what you are atching and make a clip. add a title and description, and click share. the c-span video library. searchable, easy, and free. created by the cable tv industry and funded your satellite
2:32 am
provider. >> nearly 20,000 people are foreling to the u.s. domestic servitude or service jobs. law enforcement officials testified before homeland security about the issue. two hours 45 minutes. >> i really want to thank the senator. they actually recommended we hold the hearing on this subject matter. i know that senator kelly ayotte is a former a.g. all three of them are former a.g.'s. they brought it to my attention and the attention of dr. coburn, ranking member on the committee.
2:33 am
we have a second panel that will i'm going to ask -- he moves from over there to right here. heidi heitkamp is coming from over there to right here. we will figure this all out and get on with the hearing. human trafficking has been described as modern-day slavery. and that is because its victims are in some cases forced to work, including as prostitutes, sometimes in sweatshops, against their will. trafficking victims may not be physically imprisoned, but they are trapped in often hellish conditions through physical or mental coercion that makes escape impossible or at least seem impossible. it is easy to think of human
2:34 am
trafficking is something that happened somewhere else in countries far away from hours that are suffering through war, maybe property. sadly, human trafficking is a real and growing problem all over the world, including my hearing home. it can be invisible unless officials and citizens alike are trained to recognize the telltale signs. by some measures, human trafficking is the second most significant criminal enterprise in the world, generating $32 billion in revenue. to me that is stunning -- maybe to you as well. the statistics for one type of human trafficking and prostitution are particularly shocking. every year, what than 1000 children in the united states are forced into prostitution. the average age of entry into prostitution is roughly 13 years of age. in fact, i understand there have been reports of girls forced to work as prostitutes branded by tattoos to mark them as property. human traffickers prey on vulnerable people in their own communities. while some are undocumented
2:35 am
immigrants, others are teenager runaways born and raised in the united states. just last year in wilmington, delaware, a man was found guilty of forcing a 13-year-old girl to work for him as a prostitute. just last month, the fbi conducted a three-day operation in 76 cities that led to the rescue of 105 children who have been trapped into the commercial sex string. 2 were found in the philadelphia suburbs roughly 25 miles from my home. it reminds me of a passage from the book of matthew in the bible i guess many of you have heard this. jesus was describing how god
2:36 am
looked on those who performed acts of kindness for the disadvantaged by saying, "as much as you did for the least of my brothers, you did unto me." these being preyed upon by human traffickers are the least of our brothers and sisters and we have a moral responsibility to make sure they're being protected. i'm always looking to examine the underlying cause of things. with a case of human trafficking, i hope that our witnesses today can help us better understand three key things. first, we need to know what drives human trafficking so that we can be more effective at stopping it. second, we need to get better at identifying victims so that we
2:37 am
can more successfully intervene and remove them from their terrible situations. last, we need to better identify victims of trafficking so that we can intervene before their and snared and offer them an effective treatment before they fall prey. today we are fortunate to have two panels of witnesses who can help us understand the current efforts underway at the federal, state, local, and tribal level to attack human trafficking had not. we have for senior witnesses from the department of justice and homeland security who can hopefully address some of the underlying causes. on our second panel we have four witnesses who can speak to how human trafficking impacts our
2:38 am
communities and how state and local officials and even school children are tackling this problem. as i said, just before senator heitkamp joined us, how much i appreciate both of them suggesting we hold this hearing. dr. coburn is not going to be able to join us at the hearing, but we have been joined by senator ayotte. i'm the only person here who is not a former a.g. they are all recovering attorney generals. [laughter] it is not a coincidence that they have an interest. we will start off with our friend from new jersey sitting in for dr. coburn as a ranking member. i will ask if senator heitkamp would like to speak for a while and also if senator ayotte would like to say anything. >> thank you for convening this hearing, thank you for your leadership of this committee, thank you for your leadership on the issue of human trafficking. as the chairman said earlier, human trafficking should be
2:39 am
called exactly what it is, modern-day slavery. it is a plague on our nation and the world. it is, to put it bluntly, a crime against humanity. it is a crime against the dignity of every person victimized by the ruthless criminals who trade in human beings. it is a crime against society. as dr. king said, injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. it is happening not just in foreign lands. it is happening here in our own country. it is past time to put an end to it. we must not be content to make a dent in human trafficking. we must do everything we can do to abolish modern-day slavery from our country and around the world. this is an ambitious goal but not an impossible dream. we must commit ourselves to ending the nightmare that millions of victims of human trafficking are living every day. none of us would give up our freedom for even a day. all of us must dedicate
2:40 am
ourselves to ensuring that no one else suffers that fate. you are more people in slavery around the world today that at any other point in our history. as many as 27 million people around the world are being held in bondage, forced to work in unsafe, degrading, inhumane conditions. that is the equivalent of three times the entire population of new jersey, 30 times the population of delaware, an estimated 100,000 of them right here in the united states. deprived of their liberty, subject to unspeakable abuse, the victims of human traffickers cry for help. too often their cries are unheard. today in this hearing we are giving them a voice. we are hearing pleas for rescue and for freedom. most important, we are committing ourselves to answering their cries. the war to eradicate human trafficking must be fought on many fronts. it requires the concerted, sustained efforts of law enforcement, federal, state, and local. intergovernmental cooperation is also essential to success. it requires legislators at every level to provide resources law enforcement needs to sustain an effective effort to bring human traffickers to justice. it is not adequate to provide just enough resources to fund a limited effort. without dedicated resources, there cannot be a dedicated
2:41 am
effort. it requires lawmakers to make changes to the laws that allow human traffickers to sell their victims with impunity. modern slaves are no longer auctioned in the public square. they are sold on the internet and on the back pages of newspapers. human traffickers and the publishers who take the advertisements hide under the cloak of the first amendment even though the first amendment is never intended to permit these enterprises. it requires citizens working together to advocate change. clues to its existence that inform citizens can recognize and call attention to. it requires the close cooperation of federal, state, and local governments.
2:42 am
we must work together to uncover the crime where it exists, prosecute the criminals to the fullest extent of the law, and assisted the victims so that they are not twice victimized, first by their captors, and then by the system that often treats the victims as criminals themselves. as an assistant u.s. attorney, as the attorney general of new jersey, i was in a position to ensure that we put in place the dedicated resources to sustain a dedicated effort to combat human trafficking. i know that the vast majority of law enforcement agencies across the country and at every level find themselves limited in their efforts by the limitations of the resources. to our witnesses today, i asked you to be candid in your assessment of where we stand in the fight against human trafficking and to tell us exactly what more we need to do to bring about its eradication. we have seen over the years effective short-term efforts to combat human trafficking in places where it seems to grow overnight and dispersed just as quickly. international sporting events such as the super bowl, which is
2:43 am
being played in new jersey this february, often attract huge numbers of human traffickers. in new jersey we are seeing a coordinated effort to let human traffickers know that they are not welcome, and if they decide to bring their evil trade to our state, they will pay a heavy price. as important as such efforts are, they are just part of the solution and are temporary in nature. for human traffickers, there is no off-season, and for their victims, there are no timeouts. their captors exploit them day in and day out for as long as they can. mr. chairman, i am very much looking forward to the testimony of our witnesses today, and i want to again thank you for connecting this hearing today. >> we want to thank you and certainly senator heitkamp for suggesting that we do it and encouraging us in a very strong and forceful way. senator heitkamp, welcome. >> thank you so much, chairman carper, and i want to reiterate
2:44 am
how thankful we are to bring attention to a problem that way too often is in the shadows of our society. i'm joined, by no small coincidence, with former a.g's as you look at the challenges of providing services to the victims, providing effective enforcement. we desperately need to take this problem out of the shadows. we need to identify what the causes are, as the chairman has said. but also, what we can do to provide effective deterrence, to make this our lack -- our shock value of this problem -- we need to have that shock value reflected in our prosecutorial system. we need to make this one of our highest priorities, because as the senator from new jersey has said, this is in fact human slavery. there is no other way to identify it, there's no other way to talk about it. i think way too often we think about this problem as a matter of the sex trade. yet we know it goes beyond that. we're talking about trafficking
2:45 am
and laborers, trafficking in domestic workers. these are people who are not here as a result of a smuggle- in, which is a completely different issue. they are here without any activity on their own. they are here because they are providing a source of revenue. they are being treated as a commodity. not a human being. we are not that society. mr. chairman, i look forward to the testimony, i look forward to hearing not only what the problem is, but what the solutions are, and how we can move forward in a very bipartisan way, as you see the panel appeared today, to identify a path forward to provide this horrible activity from occurring within our borders. >> thank you very, very much for your strong encouragement of me. senator ayotte, i know this is something you care about. if you want to say a few words, feel free. >> i want to thank you, chairman
2:46 am
carper, senator chiesa, and also senator heitkamp. we are former attorneys general, and seeing what a horrible crime this is coming human trafficking, in each of our states. i also want to point out that senator chiesa, that human trafficking is an international problem and international crime, and one of the problems with human trafficking is that it is used to fund terrorism around the world. today we will be talking about domestic human trafficking, and it is absolutely horrific what happens to victims of human trafficking, and they are treated like things instead of people, and that is so wrong. we need to do everything we can to learn from you about how can we be more effective in allowing these are vulnerable victims to come out of the shadows, to properly enforce the crimes and make sure we have the right laws in place, and, frankly, send a
2:47 am
message that from the federal governments and state governments working together, that we are not going to tolerate human trafficking in our country, and that we are going to make sure that victims are treated with dignity and respect, and that we prevent future victims from falling prey to such horrific crimes. i will also say that we also know that the act of trafficking itself is a horrible crime, but it often feels other criminal activities, and we would like to hear from you today what other criminal activities are being fueled by human trafficking, and how do we make sure that we come down on those criminals as well as those types of activities that are actually encouraging more trafficking rather than making sure that we stop these types of crimes.
2:48 am
i thank all of our witnesses for being here, and most of all, i want to thank my colleagues for holding such an important hearing, and i look forward to working with all of you on a bipartisan basis to address the problem that should not exist in the united states of america. >> senator ayotte, thank you, thank you for joining us today. a lot of our colleagues are not here but we have no votes today, so some may wonder in during the course of the afternoon, the folks convening this hearing care deeply about this issue and want to make sure we address it. i want to take a moment to introduce each of our witnesses on the first panel on later the second panel, but our first witness is alice hill, i think once a judge -- superior court in l.a.? >> yes, los angeles superior court. >> should we call you judge, do people call you judge? >> occasionally they do. >> my kid calls me "captain." "at ease, sailor." alice hill is chair of the blue campaign, which we will be hearing about today. before joining the department in
2:49 am
2009, ms hill served as los angeles superior court judge and prosecutor in the los angeles united states attorney's office. before her career in public service, ms. hill was a lawyer in private practice in paris, france. our next witness is -- do you go james or jim? >> jim. >> jim dinkins, associate director of homeland security, customs and enforcement, also known as ice.
2:50 am
mr. dinkins has oversight of enforcement initiatives and operations. prior to assuming his current position, he has held a number of leadership positions within ice, including special agent in charge of washington, d.c. and baltimore. mr. dinkins began his law enforcement career with the u.s. customs service in 1986. our third witness is ms. anne gannon. she is currently the national coordinator for child exploitation prevention and interdiction at the department of justice. prior to holding this position, she served as assistant u.s. attorney in california for nine years, where she courted native child exploitation investigations and prosecution. in 2009, she was named one of the top women litigators in california for her work combating child exploitation.
2:51 am
she began her career as a law clerk to a district court judge in arizona. who was that judge? do you remember? >> yes, judge reynard pollin in tucson. >> our final witness is mr. joseph campbell, deputy assistant director for criminal investigation division at the fbi. he is responsible for complex financial crime, public corruption, civil rights, and criminal investigations. mr. campbell has held a variety of leadership positions at the fbi. he began his career at the bureau in 1990. it is my understanding that only ms. hill and ms. gannon will be providing oral statements for the panel, so we will begin with ms. hill and move onto ms. gannon. gentlemen, you will be invited to join in. a number of years ago -- i think i was in the senate, so within the last 12 years -- i was on an amtrak train heading north, home, something i do almost every day. i ran into one of my former colleagues from the house of representatives, i believe it was john miller, and i said,
2:52 am
"what are you doing these days?" i think he said he worked at the state department, and his principal focus was human trafficking. i don't know if he is someone you ever worked with or knew -- there you go -- but anyway, he said it was a big issue. he said even then -- something i ought to think about and focus on as well. i thought about it for a while. feel free to summarize as you wish, and at least one of you may have a video for us to see as well. judge hill. >> thank you very much, chairman carper, ranking member chiesa, members of the committee. the department of homeland security welcomes it appreciates
2:53 am
the opportunity to speak with you today. the men and women of dhs are dedicated to combating the heinous crime of human trafficking. the department's blue campaign coordinates and unites the department's work. before discussing specific initiatives of the blue campaign, i would like to show you a short public service announcement that illustrates what the senators have been speaking about, that human trafficking occurs in the united states and there is a need for the public to open its eyes to trafficking victims hidden in plain sight. we will play this now. >> every day we go about our lives driven by what we see, blindfolded to the reality of the world around us. our mission is about the very normal people we take for granted. the victims of human trafficking walk among us. the blue campaign provides -- [indiscernible]
2:54 am
human trafficking. whether it is forced labor or the sex trade, it is within our eyes. learn what you can do to help by visiting dhs.gov/bluecampaign. >> this is an example of our attempt to engage in a conversation about what is occurring here in the united states. as has been mentioned, traffickers use force or coercion to lure their victims
2:55 am
and forced them into labor or commercial sexual exploitation. as chairman carper and senator heitkamp noted, it is important to distinguish trafficking from smuggling. the 2 are often confused, and given our authorities, we want to make clear that there is a difference. human trafficking is exploitation-based and does not require movement. smuggling is movement-based across our borders illegally. i want to share with you the story of a girl whose parents sold her into slavery when she was eight years old. she was smuggled into the united states when she was 10 years old. she worked as a domestic servant in orange county, california, 16 hours a day, scrubbing floors, cooking meals. she was rarely allowed outside.
2:56 am
she never visited a doctor, and she could not speak english. she was 13, a concerned neighbor called an attempt to law enforcement. immigrations customs enforcement, ice, opened an investigation. her captors were prosecuted, in prison and then deported. today, she is a united states citizen, and her goal is to be an ice agent, because she wants to rescue others like her she knows are hidden in plain sight in the united states. her story helps us understand the important role the government can play in identifying, investigating, and prosecuting human trafficking. dhs is one of the lead federal law-enforcement agencies engaged in combating human trafficking. through its homeland security investigations, dhs is responsible for investigating
2:57 am
human trafficking domestically and internationally. the u.s. customs border protection, cbp, is in a unique position to detect trafficking on our borders, as is the u.s. coast guard on our high seas. the transportation security administration at airports and mass transit facilities. and the federal emergency management agency, fema, in disaster areas. our investigatory authority, screening authority, and most of their programs are authorized by the trafficking victims protection act and its subsequent reauthorizations. in 2010, dhs launched the blue campaign to combat human trafficking. the blue campaign began and continues with no direct appropriations. it reflects the belief that we can be highly effective when we work collaboratively with our internal and external partners. the blue campaign focuses on training so that we can detect
2:58 am
trafficking as well as outreach so that we can prevent it from occurring. we have created specialized training and videos to educate state and local law enforcement officers at all levels on indicators of human trafficking. we want law enforcement to know how they can assist victims and to be aware of the full range of resources available to them when investigating trafficking. the blue campaign collaborates with the department of state to create a general awareness training to educate the public
2:59 am
on the indicators of human trafficking. we produced an informational video to help first responders identify possible victims of human trafficking. just of this summer we entered into a partnership agreement with the national association of counties to work with county personnel to identify human trafficking. in 2002, dhs, along with the u.s. department of transportation, dot and amtrak entered a partnership to train all 20,000 amtrak employees and the amtrak police department to recognize indicators of human trafficking as well as how to report suspected cases. we also work with the airline industry recently, together with dot, to launch the blue lightning initiative, a training program to educate airline employees on human trafficking and how to notify law enforcement. in fiscal year 2012, the hsi tip line received more human
3:00 am
trafficking kids than ever before, 588 tips. we think our efforts are working. during that same year, hsi investigated more cases than ever before. it resulted in over 950 criminal arrests, 381 convictions, and seized assets of more than one million. this year we are on pace to exceed last year's record numbers, having already initiated 940 human trafficking investigations.
3:01 am
3:02 am
3:03 am
3:04 am
3:05 am
3:06 am
3:07 am
3:08 am
3:09 am
3:10 am
3:11 am
3:12 am
3:13 am
3:14 am
3:15 am
3:16 am
3:17 am
3:18 am
3:19 am
3:20 am
3:21 am
3:22 am
3:23 am
3:24 am
3:25 am
3:26 am
3:27 am
3:28 am
3:29 am
3:30 am
3:31 am
3:32 am
3:33 am
3:34 am
3:35 am
3:36 am
3:37 am
3:38 am
3:39 am
3:40 am
3:41 am
3:42 am
3:43 am
3:44 am
3:45 am
3:46 am
3:47 am
3:48 am
3:49 am
3:50 am
3:51 am
3:52 am
3:53 am
3:54 am
3:55 am
3:56 am
3:57 am
3:58 am
3:59 am
4:00 am
4:01 am
4:02 am
4:03 am
4:04 am
4:05 am
4:06 am
4:07 am
4:08 am
4:09 am
4:10 am
4:11 am
4:12 am
4:13 am
4:14 am
4:15 am
4:16 am
4:17 am
4:18 am
4:19 am
4:20 am
4:21 am
4:22 am
4:23 am
4:24 am
4:25 am
4:26 am
4:27 am
4:28 am
4:29 am
4:30 am
4:31 am
4:32 am
4:33 am
4:34 am
4:35 am
4:36 am
4:37 am
4:38 am
4:39 am
4:40 am
4:41 am
4:42 am
4:43 am
4:44 am
4:45 am
4:46 am
4:47 am
4:48 am
4:49 am
4:50 am
4:51 am
4:52 am
4:53 am
4:54 am
4:55 am
4:56 am
4:57 am
4:58 am
4:59 am
5:00 am
i've done cases and talked about it but i've watched young students talk about the issue of human trafficking with such passion and creativity, i thought it really moved me and it really helped me -- helped focus me on the importance of spending my time and energy on
5:01 am
doing everything i could to combat it. dean, you talked earlier about the sars and the roles they can play. i know you talked in panels and thing that is you've done and maybe in academic setting but talk about the role they play when -- when i think of those, i think of those in financial crimes. talk about how you have seen that has evolved into a tool that we should be using in this area. >> the thinking behind suspicious activity reporting s that you do -- some said academic studies of criminal conduct. from those you extract factors people can look for to identify conduct that leads to crime. then the object is to train people so they can spot those indicators, notify law enforcement, notify the federal law enforcement, or state or local, whatever the appropriate level is, and at that point it
5:02 am
gets filtered up to the fusion centers and then proliferated through the government. and it's a way to bridge the gap between the different levels of government. what it provides is a template that can be exported from the context of terrorism to other contexts. and there's no more important one than human trafficking. >> you talked about making sure our boots on the ground, people you described as having the best instincts to recognize these cases. one of the things we talked about in new jersey was to better prepare our law enforcement personnel. they have great instincts and commitment. what i thought we hadn't done a good enough job on is explaining to them that it's ok to take a longer look. it's ok to drill down a little bit further. can you tell us from that, do you think that's a worthwhile way for our law enforcement community to be trying to eradicate this crime? >> absolutely. and the tremendous pressure on
5:03 am
local law enforcement is to solve the crime that exists today and that discourages the longer look. so raising awareness is critical in dealing with state and local law enforcement. so once they know there's a bigger problem, as we found with what turned into the undercover investigation of the east european trafficking in bars and massage par legislators, started as a prostitution case and grew. and we realized it's a much bigger problem. once they're alerted, better investigationless follow. >> as the son of a retired school teacher i can't say that doesn't influence my respect and admiration for all that you are doing. i've had four or five chances to sit face-to-face with your students and talk with this issue and their level of comprehension astounds me. you talked about some of the cultural thing that is you're seeing. talk to us very cannedly about the way those things are talked about in your classroom not
5:04 am
just by the leaders involved in the programs you're pursuing but maybe some of the kids who would be more apt to find themselves in the situation because they don't have either a fam i will yl support network or don't feel part of the group at school. you hear these kferings every day. talk about that and how you think that is a sign that we've become desensitized to the things that can lead us to the spot we find our own people enslaved. >> i'll never forget my second year teaching. i had a girl come into the
5:05 am
i've seen the ability for young people to reach out to other young people in schools. >> that's the thing i would like you to give us more information on. your students are going out to other schools and educating other students. that's a great thing to be doing. can you tell us about some of the reactions you're having from both the students and the teachers at the other schools that you're going to when you talk about human trafficking. >> from teachers there's a lot of skepticism and there seems that students are coming back and saying even students wearing the wrist band they've initiated conversations with parents or family members and they say what are you talking about? this doesn't exist. this isn't true. so it seems as if the students
5:06 am
are really on the front lines of even trying to convince adult communities as mr. farmer mentioned when we did an awareness night at our school in january we had two police officers from our town come and afterwards they said we had no idea that this even existed. we didn't even know anything about this. the main reaction is -- the reaction is shocking. the main reaction is for the ability for one young person to communicate to another. so it's not what we learn but what we do with what we learn. if our young people are able to educate their peers and teach them that it's not enough just to know but it's more than that. it's about doing something with what you know. starting a campaign, starting a twitter account, starting a facebook account and really getting the word out. i think that's the biggest key. >> thank you very much.
5:07 am
>> you all are just excellent. and you've just done such great work in this area and you really have put a human face on this problem. i think the last panel was all about kind of the bureaucratic response, assuming everyone knew. but you're at that level where you're dealing every day with victims and you're dealing every day with this problem and looking at it from a systemic long-term view. because this isn't going to change overnight. this is a problem that's been with us since the beginning of humanity. and it is something that i think we thought we eradicated. kind of like eradicating smallpox or polio and then it comes back because we lose focus and attention and we think it's ok. because it's not us. because it's their kids, not our kids. because it's those people and not all of us. and so we're all in this together. and i really, from er one of
5:08 am
you, i feel a lot more optimistic than i did before i got here knowing that you're out there thinking about it, thinking about infusion centers and how you're going to look at your challenges, how you're going to educate kids and not let them be victims, and thinking about the special needs of very vulnerable populations and dean farmer if you think jurisdiction's complicated between you and new york city, try to figure it out in indian country and the large land-based indian center. i want to raise another symptom of this problem and another -- especially in indian country i would like both of you to respond to an observation that i have. which is as we look at the high rate of suicide, young teen age suicide on the reservations and really off the reservations within our native people population. how much of that do you think is related to abuse, neglect,
5:09 am
trafficking? >> i think there's a strong correlation. we see abuse, multigenerational trauma that so many families experience has not been attacked. and until we understand how to heal whole families, we're going to continue to struggle with this. i think the suicide rate is linked with alcohol and drug addiction and mental illness and those in many cases are an offshoot of sexual trauma that has not been dealt with and the child has not had a chance to heal. so there's a strong corllation. >> i agree with susan. i would say a majority of the suicides of our children is due to violence, due to child abuse, due to the drugs and alcohol. just last year, we had a 14-year-old girl hang herself because she was raped. a month later we had another
5:10 am
14-year-old hang himself with a shoe string on a bathroom door knob. and then the following month we had a 19-year-old girl found hanging three days from a tree who was 1 weeks pregnant. that the -- 12 weeks pregnant. the level is at epidemic levels. and we really do need to look at the level of the violence being perpetuated in which our children are trying to navigate. the united d give states government effort a grade in this area, i guess my question is what grade would you give us? and i'll tart with you, -- tart with you, dean. >> well, i'm an easy grader. i would say a b-plus. i think the level of awareness has risen. the effort is there. the coordination can be better. >> so is this a grade on its
5:11 am
ork in indian country? a c-minus, maybe. i'm encouraged. i'm seeing progress but there's still a lot of work to be done. >> for some of the folks who aren't as familiar with indian jurisdiction. the federal government has a unique relationship, and you both raised the specter of the problems that we have right now in there. we could use five f.b.i. agents. we have 3,000 pending criminal cases in tribal court, a vast majority of those cases are drug related. but we know we've got these ongoing problems. so just so that we know so what we're grading here is a different jurisdictional challenge. >> i would have to say on a
5:12 am
d only level a because it was only a few years ago we were at hfs talking with their human trafficking division where the funding was not avebling to address domestic, only international. for indian country, a d simply because of the jurisdictional issues, the lack of funding, the lack of education and training for law enforcement and those collaborative relationships that are necessary between tribal, state, and federal agencies, to have a united front to address this issue. thank you. >> thank you. >> from
5:13 am
i want to t it make a comment about victimization and the work that we've done over the years dealing with victims. it's not easy for victims to come forward. it's not easy for victims to talk about their victimization. there's a lot of shame especially in indian country with young girls who may have used drugs and alcohol and ended up in a very bad situation. o we need to be more concerned about how we deal with victims so that they know that there is
5:14 am
justice for them regardless of what their bavers were. i think there's a lot of -- behaviors were. i think there's a lot of blaming and we need to step back and spend some time talking about how we're going to deal with this problem from a holistic standpoint. i thank you for putting a human face on this and great expertise. you gave us great ideas. >> amen. >> i would mention the two of you came up with this idea and i really didn't know what to expect. this has been a terrific hearing. great witnesses. i thank you both for recommending several people to testify and for really providing the leadership. although you're both fairly junior in the u.s. senate roviding great leadership. in the first panel we gave them a chance to make brief closing statements. i'm going -- to ask you to make
5:15 am
a very brief closing statement and then we'll wrap it up. >> thank you very much. it's hard to believe that we're talking about people as property in 2013. but we are. but i think it's eeb couraging that thanks -- encouraging that thanks to the chairman's leadership and people like the senator we're able to talk about it at the highest levels of government so we bring attention to it in our schools and communities and everywhere we can. so i appreciate the passion you brought to this issue. i appreciate the chance to talk about this issue today. and i hope that we'll continue to talk about it and that everybody who is sitting in our chairs will continue to listen so that we can make sure that people understand it's out there and that we are using every resource we can and considering every community. i come from a prosecutor's mentaltality because that's where i worked. from a victim's pr spective. all these are important to get to a solution that addresses all of it, eradicating it,
5:16 am
deterring it and returning some quality of life to the victims. thank you. >> i'm reminded of a story of a gentleman that i used to work with in north dakota. he ran the juvenile justice system. and he did a series of meetings across the state. everywhere he went he got a lot of suggestions and a lot of times he was told what he couldn't do and they would say you can't do this and that and you can't do this and you can't do that. at the end of one of these meetings on a reservation. he said you know what you can't do? and he thought, one more. she said, you can't give up. and we cannot give up on these victims. we're better than that as a country we're better than that as a people. we're better than that in our humanity. and we will lose ground if we lose focus. and so human slavery has never been ok. it won't be ok on our watch. so i want to thank the great senator from new jersey and the
5:17 am
senator from delaware for their allowing me to be part of this important hearing. and thank you all again for putting a very human face on this problem. witnesses, just a wonderful panel. thank you for your heart and conviction and for your steadfast determination to make sure we don't ignore these problems, that we say something , say something constructive, and keep saying it until we deal with this problem. a special thanks to snarlts -- our senators. we wouldn't be here but for your encouragement. but last, my colleagues and i, every wednesday there's a prayer breakfast. democrat and republican senators gather at a prayer breakfast. we read a script trur, pray, and sing a hymn. i'm usually on a train trying
5:18 am
to get here but they asked me to speak last wednesday and one f the things i mentioned was having faith to guide us. and the golden rule rings loud and clear here for me. the other thing i mentioned is what is the role of government? whatever the problem or issue that we're facing, what is the role of government? i oftentimes rely on the words of abraham lincoln who said a lot of memorable things but the role of government is to do for people what they cannot do for themselves. there's a role here for the federal government and there may well be a role for this committee. it's homeland security and governmental affairs long before it's homeland security it's governmental affairs and we have broad investigative powers into whole ranges of the federal government. we use those not just on a gotcha kind of mode but to see how can we foster collaboration and partnership, and realize what is the role of government,
5:19 am
not just state, local, law enforcement, but the faith community, what is the role of our families? it's a shared responsibility. and this is an all hands on deck moment. i'm encouraged that having certainly acknowledging we have a problem here, to also realize there are a lot of things that are working that we ought to be doing more of. and i'm encouraged that we just might do that. with that having been said, to all of our witnesses, thank you very much. and thank you. this hearing a adjourned. thank you very much.
5:20 am
5:21 am
5:22 am
>> i wish u i were not here under these circumstances, but i want to start off by thanking the governor for the tour today and for the colorado national guard. m joined by representative polis, coffman, gardner, and my good buddy michael bennett and i just want to say to them that you've been incredibly responsive. and thanks for allowing me to come out and take a look. also, the mayor is here and the county commissioner as well. i want to thank them for being so incredibly responsive. we were in the air about an hour touring the devastation.
5:23 am
and it is devastation. the stories that i've heard in here and from the gentlemen standing behind me about the sacrifices individuals made, about the sense of community, about how people pulled together is pretty amazing. but not at all surprising. not at all surprising. i want to thank all the fema group and all the red cross, all the people here. and one of the things i was saying to craig, the director of fema, i've been doing this a long time and this is an awful lot of disaster site in my career. the difference with fema today as opposed to five, six, seven years ago -- they were good then but the difference is you walk in here and it's one stop shopping. you have a group of people inside and in the other centers
5:24 am
around this state that are looking to find an answer for you. they're not giving you a telephone number. they're not saying if you need this help call this number. they're saying walk three chairs down to the table at the end of the table and we'll get this done for you. and governor, the way you've been on top from the outset is remarkable. when president obama issued the disaster declaration for the state, as you all know that provided additional assistance, everything from cleaning up debris, helping people with their housing costs, to boots on the ground that are providing technical assistance and helping the search and rescue. the good news i heard today, the number of unaccounted folks is down to six. so things are moving. thinks are moving in the right direction. fema is able to provide temporary housing, home repairs that's not covered by your insurance, medical expenses,
5:25 am
transportation needs, moving and storage, and other support for those directly impacted. and you can talk to fema representatives at any of the 14 shelters that are currently established here and they can help you figure out what kind of assistance you're eligible for. the thing i find most often visiting disaster sites, first of all people are absolutely devastated. they connot believe everything that they have literally has been washed away. and the last thing they need is to be confronted with a group of alphabet agencies that are going to in fact tell them you can do a, b, or c. this idea of not only providing help but giving them comfort, telling them in a zone where they know that everybody inside this building and the others are there to help them. so you can get assistance and those who are going to be watching this on television, you can get assistance at
5:26 am
fema.gov or by calling the help line. 21-3362. there will be someone on the other end of the line that will walk you through your needs. you tell them what your problem is, tell them what you lost, and they will will find a way through the maze for you. there is help. the department of transportation is here, the federal highway administration, and they're working closely with federal, state, and local agencies to assess the damage and help restore essential traffic and minimize further damage. one of the things i've found most fascinating and devastating in the helicopter ride is there's so many small communities that are literally
5:27 am
isolated, isolated on one side of a stream or one side of what now is a raging river with no physical possibility of crossing that stream where -- the way it is raging right now. it's not raging in a comparable sense but it's a lot deeper and a lot more rapid than it usually is. those folks can't even make it across on to a road. the number of highways that have been washed away completely and the county and city roads that have washed out as well. and so there's the ability, there is moneys available to help both the federal highway system as well as the local highway system. today there has been 35 million approved to repair and reconstruction of roads and bridges that's obviously not going to be enough but it is going to continue to coordinate these critical infrastructure
5:28 am
needs. we talked to the county commissioner about the need for bridges, bridges right now, get agricultural products to market. so everything is not lost. all of this is under way. quite frankly, i expected to see it worse than i have in a matter of just slightly over a week the progress that's been made thus far is pretty remarkable. we're going to keep working with the governor on long-term strategy rebuilding and get people back into their homes. once all these -- i say to listening, those once this is over, fema and the red cross is still going to be here until we make you whole, until we make it right for you. and iment you to know if -- i wanted you to know that a lot of you listening will hear probably on the national news about the potential for a government shutdown and it's probably going to scare the
5:29 am
living devil out of you. the truth is there's reason to be scared but not in terms of disaster relief. none of the federal assistance that we're providing is going to be impacted even if there is a government shutdown. i don't want folks in shelters or watching on tv seeing the dysfunction of congress and thinking that all the relief efforts that they're now benefiting from are likely to continue to benefit from are going to shut down. they will not shut down even if the congress doesn't fund the federal government in a continuing resolution. so i promise you, the president and i and the men standing behind you are going to stay focused on this. as i said, when the cameras leave, the help is going to remain. so i say as tough as it is -- and it is tough -- i have never felt anything like what the people of this county and these
5:30 am
counties are going through. but just having my home struck by lightning and absolutely devastated, the sense of loss -- and i was in good shape. the sense of loss is overwhelming when you lose your home. it's overwhelming. it affects everything about how you feel, what you think, and what you do. but i promise you, there will be help. it will take some time in some of your cases but immediate help for shelter and the rest is available. as my grandfather would say, keep the faith. i promise you, we're not going away. the state, local, and federal government is not leaving. we are going to meet the needs as a consequence of this disaster. god bless you all. and may god keep everyone safe. thank you.
5:31 am
[captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
5:32 am
5:33 am
5:34 am
there is no one better to introduce this session than the dean of the school of public affairs, a scholar in her own right, barbara romzek. barbara? >> thank you, john, and i want to complement john gould and others and though work of the group as well as the sponsorship of the center for congressional and presidential studies. their group brings a great deal of knowledge and expertise to this, trying to create these things for us. these briefings are important for the school of public affairs, as they are an opportunity to bring experts to campus, but also a chance to showcase our faculty and the research that is being done on campus about important issues of the day.
5:35 am
we will talk about fragmentation of political discourse, about shifting suburbs and where the voting emphasis tends to be these days. all of this is important for us to understand current politics. the current politics have become -- you just meet at the morning -- you just need to look at the morning newspaper -- it has become increasingly ragmented. we are facing just in the next few weeks important challenges over whether the government will continue to operate after october 1, facing an issue of a crisis about whether we will have approval for extending the debt ceiling. both of those can affect significantly the perception of how effective the united states is, how effective the government is, what kind of health we have as a political community.
5:36 am
the underlying dynamics of those kinds of contentious baits are going to be explained to us today. it is rooted in our politics. we will find out what that is, will find out what we can do about it. it is related to some complicated shifting the graphics, some complicated economics, and some geographic shifts we are having. i ask you to join me please in welcoming the panel, and welcoming our distinguished guests and also welcoming the c-span viewers out there. thank you. >> thank you again, barbara. this is the fruits of the work that you and the faculty have come for this past year in identifying key directions for the school to move into. we're delighted bring this panel to you. let me briefly introduce them. you have before you two of the
5:37 am
best pollsters around from the best organizations around. mike bloomfield from the mellman group, a left-leaning political organization -- a democrat -- i'm being kinder or more softer. mike, we're delighted you are here. we have bill mcintuff, who works with the republican-oriented candidates who will look at the data we have today. in between them is elizabeth williamson, a writer at "the wall street journal," with our project director, dante hinni. joining them will be antoine yoshinaka, who is a colleague of mine.
5:38 am
he's doing work on congressional redistricting, and he will share his insight into the data that has unfolded. one of the first faculty members i met was the gentleman to my immediate left, a rather unusual member of the faculty since he is not a social scientist. almost all of the school's faculty are social scientists, and a few lawyers. dante is a journalist, active, and he is an inventor. the thing that makes dante unique is he has the heart of a ournalist. he is good at math. for journalists, unusual, and he has played around with numbers. years ago he invented something
5:39 am
called patchwork nation, and instead of looking at states, he began to look at counties as the units that are most interesting about perhaps the most fundamental in understanding the way the country is moving, not just politically, but in a whole realm of things. we are delighted that dante has evolved that project into something now called the dual american communities project a steer at the school of public affairs at american university. in talking to him about this early on, many of us thought there is some interesting stuff in here. we should get into it. he should share it. the development of this panel and the development of what dante chinni will now tell us about the american communities project. dante?
5:40 am
>> thank you, john, and thank you for coming today. it may have been hard to get up after finding that the redskins are 0-3, but life goes on, so we are all here. what i want to do here is offer a brief overview of what the acp is and how it works. then i want to swing a talk about the suburbs. the acp was born out of my frustration with red and blue america. i think red and blue america are fine for understanding scorekeeping. we essentially have two teams. we have to see who wins. the problem with those maps is that they become shorthand definitions for the country, and they miss the point. you have the 2004 kerry-bush map and what it evolved into for a lot of people in the
5:41 am
united states. again we have to have a way of keeping score, but that map misses the nuance. it misses the difference between red states and blue tates. there is a difference between -- this does that a huge disservice. the other way we like to talk about politics is demographics. i like talking about immigrants, men, women, african-americans, and i write bout the data often. my problem is that it takes these people and disassociates them from place to much so that this woman, who is 20-something
5:42 am
and lives in new york and likes to go to the clubs i like to go to, looks the same as this woman who lives in rural kansas and has four kids and lives a different kind of life. in response to these ways of looking at america, a solely demographic system and a system aced on big units of geography and whether they are democratic or republican, we came up with the american communities project. e took scores of demographic data sets and we looked at them across every county in the country and used a clustering technique to identify different kinds of communities in america. you will see some are very regional. you see some along the south, you see the southeast, in the southwest, a big chunk around utah, the purple areas through there. some of them are not so much about regions as they are about urban-suburban culture, and you
5:43 am
see those faces pop up around pink and orange, detroit, chicago, minneapolis, a bit of it in denver, and along the east coast. these places -- this is a different kind of place in america that is not about a region as it is about a mindset, and that is what we will talk about today. when you take this map and you look at it in terms of the sheer data, this is what the numbers look like. 15 different types of communities in america, and these are the number of counties for each and the population for each. what we will do today -- and i will use the laser pointer -- we will talk about these exurbs, the big cities, and the suburbs. the big cities, counties, the 50 largest cities in america. the urban suburbs mostly sit
5:44 am
immediately next to those big cities. middle suburbs are based in the rust belt and in the midwest. suburban places that are fundamentally different, slightly older, less educated, nd the exurbs, the next ring out after looking at an urban area. what does this tell us? so what? what does this mean? it gives you a different way of looking at data. any data that is geo-tagged where you know the person, where they come from, about culture, you can use this to filter the numbers and look at it in a different way. what we will look at is look at what it means for the 2012 election because it is instructive at looking at the results of 2012. if we can do that. ok.
5:45 am
these are the 2012 exit polls. this is what happened. there is a massive exit polls taken the night of election, and when they break them down this is what looks like, for 2012, anyway. barack obama wins huge in urban areas. the problem is that the united states is more complicated than just having cities, suburbs, and rural areas. when you use the american communities project to break down the data it looks like this. obama still wins huge in the big cities, obviously. romney wins huge in the exurban areas. middle suburbs, romney eeks out a victory. what is telling is these urban suburbs. these are places -- suburban america, depending on your
5:46 am
definition, but when you divide it this week, a 16-point win is a pretty big win, but it is more telling at what you see since what is happening since 000. ok, this here on the top you are looking at the big cities. these are the votes in the urban burbs. middle suburbs and the exurbs. in 2000, george w. bush nearly lost the popular vote by less than a million votes. he won these exurban areas by 9 percentage points. in 2012, mitt romney won these areas. the big change happened in the big cities, and these urban suburbs are very interesting because what happened is al gore won by 11 points in 2000,
5:47 am
but barack obama won by 16 points in 2012, and that is a year where people were unhappy with the direction of the country, and this suggests that something is going on. the urban suburbs, obama beat romney by 5 million votes, which is what he won the election by. there are all sorts of other things going on in different kinds of communities, but that gap is very significant. what is going on in these places? how are the suburbs different? i think they are different than we imagined them to be. they become different in the past 10 years or so. this is looking at income and poverty in america, using these four types, and the interesting thing is the urban suburbs are the wealthiest. they hold the most wealthy people. more incomes, $200,000 and
5:48 am
above than any other type. you see the number right behind them, the big city areas, the exurbs are close, but the big cities and urban suburbs are not as far apart in this area as you might think they are. and a lot of people might assume the suburbs are more likely exurbs, but in terms of -- they are more like the cities. what that is interesting is when you look at poverty. the big cities have the highest poverty, and that is we know hat urban poverty is like. what is interesting is the urban suburbs are not -- they are five points back, or 17% worse is 12%, but they are igher than the exurbs. you have high poverty and high wealth at the same time. that is interesting thing, when you look at the meeting household income, the urban suburbs are the wealthiest.
5:49 am
barack obama -- out of all the types i looked at, not just the wealthiest of these four types, they are the wealthiest in the country. barack obama won these wealthiest or the highest median household income counties in the country by 16 percentage points, and that is counterintuitive for a lot of eople. one thing that has been going on quickly is demographic hifts. when you look at these numbers here, what you will see is the white population -- numbers from 2000 and 2011 -- the white population in the urban suburbs has dropped by 4%. it has dropped everywhere, but the interesting thing is it is now below 70%. it is 69%. there is now only a nine percentage point divide in terms of the percentage of white migration in the big city counties and the urban burbs. there was a 14 percentage point
5:50 am
difference in 2000. that is because the big cities, through gentrification, have grown wider in some ways. everything that is interesting is that his panic population. the hispanic population for the urban burbs has risen, but in 2000, the urban hispanic population was roughly equal to he u.s. number, 12.5%. in the last 10 years from the urban burbs accelerated. the country has grown more hispanic, urban burbs have grown more hispanic. that may have -- when i look at t with numbers, because we see there is a big hispanic divide, is -- data that is pro-democratic. i want to talk about one more
5:51 am
shift and i will turn it over to antoine. consumer culture is undervalued as a measure of what is going on in the country. we work with experian consumer ervices. they have 10,000 surveys in the field every month. they asked people everything from political preference to the soap they buy to the coffee they drink. with that data they create -- they can tell you places that overrepresented for liberals and underrepresented for conservatives. when you look at starbucks, if you'd have an average four, it would be 100 for each. starbucks is heavily for iberals. when you look at the starbucks in these communities, they are most in the cities, surprise, but there are far more in the urban suburbs.
5:52 am
there's a nice stair effect. in the big cities it is 5.5 starbucks per every 100,000 people. in the exurbs, it is about 3.4 starbucks per every 100,000 people. you can see the increases in the number of stores between 2008 and 2013, the urban burbs ave seen far more. it means the consumer culture, while we may make fun of it, it is culture in that it defines what it places about, and these places, when you look at kinds of stores that are in them, the kinds of retail accurate as people have, each shape their view of reality, they are trending more and more democratic. the long run that all these numbers mean over time, when
5:53 am
you add everything, these plays are more and more democratic and it will be more of her problem to republicans if they cannot reach these people. they need to find a way to reach these people. they are shifting democratic, and republicans need to reach them again. the line used to be between the cities that were democratic and the exurbs that were republican and the suburbs that are battlegrounds. they have increasingly shifted democratic and over the long term that is a problem for the gop. with that, i will turn it over to antoine. hanks. >> all right. my name is antoine yoshinaka. i'm the token professor on the panel today. i will keep my comments brief, but before i get into it, i want to touch upon three themes
5:54 am
that i will talk about today. the first one is this country has been growing quite a bit lately. the growth is not equal everywhere. there are areas that are growing at a much faster rate than others. what i want to show you is that the areas that are providing the most growth are areas that democrats are doing increasingly well. where democrats have been doing not so well in the last 10 years are areas that are not rowing fast or not at all. republicans in the room, some thing that you really want to understand to see where the demographic shifts are occurring and political shifts are occurring. number two, building upon what ante said, this masks some very important heterogeneity
5:55 am
between exurbs and urban suburbs. the third point is to show you data that's just some of this bifurcation between urban suburbs and the rest is a recent phenomenon. we are talking about the last 10 years. the data i will show you today and discuss will speak to those three themes. first of all this is the first graph, looking at the breakdown by county types -- 15 county types -- where barack obama in 2012 did better than al gore. these are the big cities. this is where al gore won the big cities by 20 points. obama won the cities by 30 points. he did considerably better than they are. he did better in the college towns, hispanic centers, and he did poorly relative to gore in the evangelical areas of the
5:56 am
country, the working-class reas of the country. now, what this matters -- looking at this graph, what we do not know is how much growth these various areas have sustained in the last decade or o. those are areas that provide the most growth in this country. this is 60%, coming from big cities, urban suburbs, and exurbs, and those are three areas where barack did better than al gore, especially the cities by 10 percentage points, and the urban suburbs by six percentage points, and he actually did better than al gore did in exurbs. he still lost them by a big margin, but it is trending a
5:57 am
tiny bit toward the democratic party. you see this. here that is about their -- those are the middle suburbs, areas where they have not growing as much as the other areas, and where obama and gore did equally the same. those are the areas that you could look, compared to the 2000 election and 2012, and you see barack obama did worse than al gore did, but those are areas that did not grow a lot, that are not providing much of he growth in this country. much of the growth is not coming from those areas. barack obama lost these and did poorly in those, but this is not where the country is growing. the three areas on the right,
5:58 am
the big cities, urban suburbs, exurbs, those areas represent about 175 million americans in those three areas alone. whereas, evangelical hubs are about 12 million, working-class is 8 million, and lds are a million or so. those are about 25 million americans living in those, whereas those three blue dots at the upper right, 175 million mericans living there. let's look at what has happened, looking at one issue. we picked one issue. there are obviously many issues that are important in the electorate in any given election, but we will stick to this one, global warming. every election there's usually a question on surveys that asks voters if they think that global warming is in this case a very serious problem, somewhat serious problem,
5:59 am
there's also the not so very serious problem, or not a problem at all. if we combine these very serious and somewhat serious problems, you can see a clear divide between folks who live in the big cities and the urban suburbs, where 70% think that global warming is serious or somewhat serious problem. and you move on to the middle suburbs and the exurbs, where it is around 55% of the americans who think that global warming is a big problem. it is about a 15-point cap. if you go back years ago, seven years ago, 2006, on the left there, the same question about global warming, and you see the breakdown between the four categories.
6:00 am
not so much of a divide anymore. seven years ago, folks who lived in the big cities, the suburbs, middle suburbs, exurbs they thought global warming was a problem at a 75% rate, and fast- forward to 2012, that divide is clearly present the between on the one hand big cities and urban suburbs and middle suburbs and exurbs. those are the trends that we think are partly explaining why urban suburbs are areas where democrats are doing increasingly better and they are resembling cities more and more. for those of you familiar with the d.c. area, we're talking about montgomery county. that would be an urban suburbs, and how people in montgomery county are probably much more like folks who live in d.c., rather than folks who live further out outside of the d.c. area. before i turn it over, i want to leave you with two questions that this raises, that this research raises that we d

46 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on